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AntiFederalist Papers No. 1-85
The debates that occurred prior to the adoption of the
Constitution For the united States.

 
     In contrast to Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay who supported ratification of the Constitution of the united States, many others did not. While the former's works were more logically organized (and eventually won the debate), the

AntiFederalist Papers

 writers were nonetheless articulate. Serious questions were raised which eventually led to some of the Federalist writings that served as answers to allegations of the AntiFederalists.
 
     No serious student of the Constitution can be without both sides of the story. Some AntiFederalist prophecies have strangely come true. Writings by "Brutus" and "A Federal Farmer," particularly relating to the "necessary and proper" clause (Article I, Section 8, Clause 18), view the future under an unrestrained Congress. Although the "necessary and proper" clause was never meant to be a blanket grant of power, over the years, as the intentions of the Founding Fathers have passed further and further from our memories, all three branches of the federal government have assumed things that simply do not -and never did -exist. As the States have forgotten how to be a check against a Congress run amok, things are getting worse.
 
     These documents, like the Federalist Papers themselves, cannot be considered all inclusive. Many other pro and con pieces appeared in newspapers, in the state ratification conventions, in pamphlets, books, and other sources of the time.
 
   Although not complete, these are considered the premier AntiFederalist writings, organized somewhat to coincide with the Federalist Papers.
 
Federalist and Anti Federalist Papers Chronology Study Guide Table
(Expand to View, Links to Documents provide Courtesy Buttons back to this Table.)

 
Chronology of the Pro- and Anti- Federalist Papers and how they related to one another and to key documents and events.
Year Month Day Event Pro-Federalist Anti-Federalist Subject Opposes
1781 Mar 1 Articles of Confederation adopted  
 
 
 
1786 Sep. 14 Annapolis Convention calls for Constitutional Convention
 
 
 
 
1787 Feb 21 Congress calls for convention in Philadelphia  
 
 
 
1787 Apr 16 Madison's Virginia Plan Presented by Edmund Randolph to the Federal Constitutional Convention on May 29, 1787
 
 
 
 
 
May 25 Constitutional Convention Opens  
 
 
 
 
May 29 Virginia Plan Debate  
 
 
 
 
Jun 15 New Jersey Plan  
 
 
 
 
Jun 18 Hamilton Plan  
 
 
 
 
Jul 16 Great Compromise  
 
 
 
 
Aug 6 First Draft  
 
 
 
 
Sep 17 Final version approved, Conv. closes  
 
 
 
 
Oct 5  
 
Centinel #1 Responsibility, Checks Federalist #10, 51
 
Oct 6
Speech of James Wilson, Pennsylvania, October 6, 1787
Also published in the "Pennsylvania Packet" on October 10, 1787, receiving more coverage than the more detailed arguments made in The Federalist.
James Wilson  
 
 
 
Oct 8  
 
Federal Farmer #1 Extended republics, taxation Federalist #8, 10, 14, 35, 36
 
Oct 9  
 
Federal Farmer #2 Extended republics, taxation Federalist #8, 10, 15, 35, 36
 
Oct 18  
 
Brutus #1 Extent of union, States' Rights, Bill of Rights, Taxation Federalist #10, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 45, 84
 
Oct 22  
 
John DeWitt #1 Need for stronger union Federalist #1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
 
Oct 27  
Federalist #1 John DeWitt #2 Need for stronger union Federalist #1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
 
Oct 31  
Federalist #2  
 
 
 
Nov 5 State of Pennsylvania Convention on Ratification of the Constitution
 
John DeWitt #2 Bill of Rights Wilson (Nov. 28),
Federalist #84
 
Nov 14  
Federalist #6  
 
 
 
Nov 22  
Federalist #10  
 
 
 
Nov 27  
 
Cato #5 Executive powers Federalist #67
 
Nov 29  
 
Brutus #4 House of Representatives Federalist #27, 28, 52-54, 57
 
Nov 30  
Federalist #14  
 
 
 
Dec 7 Delaware ratifies  
 
 
 
 
Dec 12 Pennsylvania ratifies  
 
 
 
 
Dec 18 New Jersey ratifies Federalist #23 Penn. Minority Extent of union, States' Rights, Bill of Rights, Taxation Federalist #10, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 45, 84
 
Dec 27  
 
Brutus #6 Broad construction, taxing powers Federalist #23, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34
1788 Jan 2 Georgia ratifies  
 
 
 
 
Jan 3  
 
Cato #7 Regulating election Federalist #59
 
Jan 9 Connecticut ratifies  
 
 
 
 
Jan 16  
Federalist #39  
 
 
 
Jan 24  
 
Brutus #10 Defense, standing armies Federalist #24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29
 
Jan 26  
Federalist #45  
 
 
 
Jan 31  
 
Brutus #11 Judiciary Federalist #78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83
 
Feb 6 Massachusetts ratifies Federalist #51  
 
 
 
Feb 7 Massachusetts proposed amendments  
Brutus #12, Pt. 1 Judiciary Federalist #78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83
 
Feb 14  
 
Brutus #12, Pt. 2 Judiciary Federalist #78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83
 
Feb 19  
Federalist #57  
 
 
Feb 27  
Federalist #62  
 
 
 
Mar 15  
Federalist #70  
 
 
 
Mar 20  
 
Brutus #15 Judiciary 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83
 
Apr 10  
 
Brutus #16 Senate Federalist #62, 63
 
Apr 26 Maryland ratifies  
 
 
 
 
May 23 S. Carolina ratifies  
 
 
 
 
May 28  
Federalist #78, 84  
 
 
 
Jun 5,7  
 
Patrick Henry Nature and powers of Union Federalist #1, 14, 15
 
Jun 21 New Hampshire ratifies; the 9th state  
 
 
 
 
Jun 20-27  
 
Melancton Smith Representation in Congress Federalist #52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 62, 63
 
Jun 25 Virginia ratifies  
 
 
 
 
Jun 27 Virginia proposed amendments  
 
 
 
 
Jul 26 New York ratifies  
 
 
 
 
Aug 4 N. Carolina rejects  
 
 
 
1789 Mar 4 Constitution takes effect  
 
 
 
 
Jun 8 Madison introduces Bill of Rights amendments  
 
 
 
 
Nov 21 N. Carolina ratifies  
 
 
 
1790 May 29 Rhode Island ratifies  
 
 
 
1791 Nov 3 Bill of Rights amendments take effect  
 
 
 

AntiFederalist Paper No. 1

   GENERAL INTRODUCTION:
   A DANGEROUS PLAN OF BENEFIT ONLY TO THE “ARISTOCRATICK COMBINATION”
   From The Boston Gazette and Country Journal, November 26, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 2

   “WE HAVE BEEN TOLD OF PHANTOMS”
   This essay is an excerpted from a speech of William Grayson, June 11, 1788, in Jonathan Elliot (ed.), The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution . . . (Philadelphia, 1876) 5 vols., III, 274-79.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 3

   NEW CONSTITUTION CREATES A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT; WILL NOT ABATE FOREIGN INFLUENCE; DANGERS OF CIVIL WAR AND DESPOTISM
   Like the nome de plume “Publius” used by pro Constitution writers in the Federalist Papers, several Antifederalists signed their writings “A FARMER. “While the occupation of the writers may not have coincided with the name given, the arguments against consolodating power in the hands of a central government were widely read. The following was published in the Maryland Gazette and Baltimore Advertiser, March 7, 1788. The true identity of the author is unknown.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 4

   FOREIGN WARS, CIVIL WARS, AND INDIAN WARS - THREE BUGBEARS
   Patrick Henry was a somewhat the antithesis to James Madison of Federalist note. While every bit as emotional a writer, Henry (who penned the well remembered “Give Me Liberty of Give Me Death” phrase) opposed the new Constitution for many reasons. He delivered long speeches to the Virginia Ratification convention June 5, 7, and 9, 1788. The following is taken from Elliot's Debates, 111, 46, 48, 141-42, 150-56.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 5

   SCOTLAND AND ENGLAND - A CASE IN POINT
   The ongoing Federalist essays appeared from October of 1787 to May of 1788. Rebuttals (Antifederalist in nature) to Federalist writers seldom were published. This selection was an answer to Publius [John Jay] Federalist No. 5. This article by “AN OBSERVER,” was printed in The New-York Journal and was reprinted in the [Boston] American Herald on December 3, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 6

   THE HOBGOBLINS OF ANARCHY AND DISSENSIONS AMONG THE STATES
   One of largest series of Antifederalist essays was penned under the pseudonym “CENTINEL.” The Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer ran this 24 essay series between October 5, 1787 and November 24, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 7

   ADOPTION OF THE CONSTITUTION WILL LEAD TO CIVIL WAR
   “PHILANTHROPOS,” (an anonymous Virginia Antifederalist) appeared in The Virginia Journal and Alexandria Advertiser, December 6, 1787, writing his version of history under the proposed new Constitution.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 8

   “THE POWER VESTED IN CONGRESS OF SENDING TROOPS FOR SUPPRESSING INSURRECTIONS WILL ALWAYS ENABLE THEM TO STIFLE THE FIRST STRUGGLES OF FREEDOM”
   “A FEDERAL REPUBLICAN” (from Virginia) had his `letter to the editor’ appear in The Norfolk and Portsmouth Register March 5, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 9

   A CONSOLIDATED GOVERNMENT IS A TYRANNY
   “MONTEZUMA,” regarded as a Pennsylvanian, wrote this essay which showed up in the Independent Gazetteer on October 17, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 10

   ON THE PRESERVATION OF PARTIES, PUBLIC LIBERTY DEPENDS
   This essay follows a theme similar to Federalist No. 10, and appeared in the Maryland Gazette and Baltimore Advertiser, March 18, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 11

   UNRESTRICTED POWER OVER COMMERCE SHOULD NOT BE GIVEN THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
   Scholars regard James Winthrop of Cambridge, Mass. to be the “Agrippa” who contributed the series to The Massachusetts Gazette from November 23, 1787 to February 5, 1788. This is a compilation of excerpts from “Agrippa's” letters of December 14, 18, 25, and 28, 1787, taken from Ford, Essays, pp. 70-73, 76-77, 79-81.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 12

   HOW WILL THE NEW GOVERNMENT RAISE MONEY?
   “CINCINNATUS” is an Antifederalist writer. In this essay, from an Address to a Meeting of the Citizens of Philadelphia, the writer responds to James Wilson's statements about Congress' powers to tax under the Constitution. It appeared in the November 29 and December 6, 1787, New-York Journal, as reprinted from a Philadelphia newspaper.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 13

   THE EXPENSE OF THE NEW GOVERNMENT
   Part 1: From The Feeeman's Oracle and New Hampshire Advertiser, January 11, 1788, by “A FARMER”
   Part 2: An unsigned essay from The Connecticut Journal, October 17, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 14

   EXTENT OF TERRITORY UNDER CONSOLIDATED GOVERNMENT TOO LARGE TO PRESERVE LIBERTY OR PROTECT PROPERTY
   George Clinton, Governor of New York, was an adversary of the Constitution. He composed several letters under the nome de plume “CATO.” This essay is from the third letter of “Cato,” The New-York Journal of October 25, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 15

   RHODE ISLAND IS RIGHT!
   This essay appeared in The Massachusetts Gazette, December 7, 1787, as reprinted From The Freeman's Journal; (Or, The North-American Intelligencer?)
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 16

   EUROPEANS ADMIRE AND FEDERALISTS DECRY THE PRESENT SYSTEM
   “ALFRED” defended the Articles of Confederation, taken from The New-York Journal, December 25, 1787 as reprinted from the [Philadelphia] Independent Gazetteer.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 17

   FEDERALIST POWER WILL ULTIMATELY SUBVERT STATE AUTHORITY
   The “necessary and proper” clause has, from the beginning, been a thorn in the side of those seeking to reduce federal power, but its attack by Brutus served to call attention to it, leaving a paper trail of intent verifying its purpose was not to give Congress anything the Constitution “forgot,” but rather to show two additional tests for any legislation Congress should attempt: to wit --that the intended actions would be both necessary AND proper to executing powers given under clauses 1-17 of Article I Section 8. This is the fameous BRUTUS.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 18 - 20 (Part 1)

   WHAT DOES HISTORY TEACH? (PART 1)
   “AN OLD WHIG,” taken from The Massachusetts Gazette, November 27, 1787, as reprinted from the [Philadelphia] Independent Gazetteer.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 18 - 20 (Part 2)

   WHAT DOES HISTORY TEACH? (PART II)
   “A NEWPORT MAN,” wrote this wit which appeared in The Newport Mercury, March 17, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 21

   WHY THE ARTICLES FAILED
   This essay is composed of excerpts from “CENTINEL” letters appearing in the (Philadelphia) Independent Gazetteer, October 5 and November 30, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 22

   ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION SIMPLY REQUIRES AMENDMENTS, PARTICULARLY FOR COMMERCIAL POWER AND JUDICIAL POWER; CONSTITUTION GOES TOO FAR
   Benjamin Austin of Massachusetts, used the pen-name “CANDIDUS.” Taken from two letters by “Candidus” which appeared in the [Boston] Independent Chronicle, December 6 and 20, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 23

   CERTAIN POWERS NECESSARY FOR THE COMMON DEFENSE, CAN AND SHOULD BE LIMITED
   In Federalist No. 23, Alexander Hamilton spoke of the necessity for an energetic government. “BRUTUS” replied. Taken from the 7th and 8th essays of “Brutus” in The New-York Journal, January 3 and 10, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 24

   OBJECTIONS TO A STANDING ARMY (PART I)
   The first essay is taken from the ninth letter of “BRUTUS” which appeared in The New-York Journal, January 17, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 25

   OBJECTIONS TO A STANDING ARMY (PART II)
   From the tenth letter of “BRUTUS” appearing in The New-York Journal, January 24, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 26

   THE USE OF COERCION BY THE NEW GOVERNMENT (PART 1)
   “A FARMER AND PLANTER” had his work printed in The Maryland Journal, and Baltimore Advertiser, April 1, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 27

   THE USE OF COERCION BY THE NEW GOVERNMENT (PART 2)
   “JOHN HUMBLE's,” following piece was published in the Independent Gazetteer, October 29, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 28

   THE USE OF COERCION BY THE NEW GOVERNMENT (PART III)
   This essay was published in either the (Philadelphia) Freeman's Journal; or, The North-American Intelligencer, January 16, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 29

   OBJECTIONS TO NATIONAL CONTROL OF THE MILITIA
   “A DEMOCRATIC FEDERALIST,” appeared in “the Pennsylvania Packet,” October 23, 1787; following #29, #30 is excerpted from THE ADDRESS AND REASONS OF DISSENT OF THE MINORITY OF THE CONVENTION OF THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA TO THEIR CONSTITUENTS, December 12, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 30 - 31

   A VIRGINIA ANTIFEDERALIST ON THE ISSUE OF TAXATION
   From The Freeman's Journal; or, The North-American Intelligencer, October 31, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 32

   FEDERAL TAXATION AND THE DOCTRINE OF IMPLIED POWERS (PART I)
   A powerful rebuttal of Hamilton, the logic of Brutus can be found in a supreme Court decision of 1819, McCulloch v. Maryland. Taken from “Brutus” fifth essay, The New-York Journal of December 13, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 33

   FEDERAL TAXATION AND THE DOCTRINE OF IMPLIED POWERS (PART II)
   The Federalist writers apparently never responded to “BRUTUS.” The following “Brutus” article was extracted from his sixth essay, The New-York Journal of December 27, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 34

   THE PROBLEM OF CONCURRENT TAXATION
   The following speech by Patrick Henry was delivered to the Virginia ratifying convention, June 5, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 35

   FEDERAL TAXING POWER MUST BE RESTRAINED
   George Mason of Virginia opposed the Constitution because it lacked a Bill of Rights, and centralized powers further than he felt it necessary. Mason delivered the following speech before the Virginia ratifying convention, June 4, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 36

   REPRESENTATION AND INTERNAL TAXATION
   Richard Henry Lee was arguably the best known Antifederalist writer. His pamphlets were widely distributed and reprinted in newspapers. Antifederalist Papers # 36/37 are excerpts from his first pamphlet. Antifederalist Nos. 41, 42, 43, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61, 63, 69, 76-77 are taken from his second pamphlet.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 37

   FACTIONS AND THE CONSTITUTION
   . . . To have a just idea of the government before us, and to show that a consolidated one is the object in view, it is necessary not only to examine the plan, but also its history, and the politics of its particular friends.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 38

   SOME REACTIONS TO FEDERALIST ARGUMENTS
   This was an essay by “BRUTUS JUNIOR” which appeared in The New-York Journal on November 8, 1787. Two articles by “A COUNTRYMAN” were written by DeWitt Clinton, and appeared also in the New York Journal on January 10 and February 14, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 39

   APPEARANCE AND REALITY-THE FORM IS FEDERAL; THE EFFECT IS NATIONAL
   The following excerpt is from the essays of “A FARMER.” It appeared in the Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer on April 15 and 22, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 40

   ON THE MOTIVATIONS AND AUTHORITY OF THE FOUNDING FATHERS
   Anti-Federalist #40 is a compilation of articles.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 41 - 43 (Part 1)

   “THE QUANTITY OF POWER THE UNION MUST POSSESS IS ONE THING; THE MODE OF EXERCISING THE POWERS GIVEN IS QUITE A DIFFERENT CONSIDERATION” (Part 1)
   Taken from “THE FEDERAL FARMER,” Richard Henry Lee.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 41 - 43 (Part 2)

   “THE QUANTITY OF POWER THE UNION MUST POSSESS IS ONE THING; THE MODE OF EXERCISING THE POWERS GIVEN IS QUITE A DIFFERENT CONSIDERATION” (Part II)
   (Richard Henry Lee)
   . . . In the present state of mankind, and of conducting war, the government of every nation must have power to raise and keep up regular troops. The question is, how shall this power be lodged?
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 44

   WHAT CONGRESS CAN DO; WHAT A STATE CAN NOT
   “DELIBERATOR” appeared in The Freeman's Journal; or, The North-American Intelligencer, February 20, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 45

   POWERS OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DANGEROUS TO STATE GOVERNMENTS; NEW YORK AS AN EXAMPLE
   Robert Yates, a delegate to the 1787 convention from New York, left on July 10, 1787. He became an Antifederalist leader. Under the nome de plume “Sydney” he wrote in the New York Daily Patriotic Register, June 13 and 14, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 46

   “WHERE THEN IS THE RESTRAINT?”
   This essay by “AN OLD WHIG” (see AFP #'s Nos. 18-20, 49, 50, and 70) appeared in the Maryland Gazette and Baltimore Advertiser on Nov. 2, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 47

   “BALANCE” OF DEPARTMENTS NOT ACHIEVED UNDER NEW CONSTITUTION
   This essay is made up of of excerpts from “CENTINEL's,” letters of October 5 and 24, 1787. Taken from The Independent Gazetteer.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 48

   NO SEPARATION OF DEPARTMENTS RESULTS IN NO RESPONSIBILITY
   “LEONIDAS,” from London, obviously did not understand Article II Section I of the proposed new Constitution. But his works were welcomed in the London Times, and either The Freeman's Journal, or The North-American Intelligencer on July 30, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 49

   ON CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONS (PART 1)
   The following essay is in two parts: the first is by “MASSACHUSETTENSIS,” and is reprinted from The Massachusetts Gazette of January 29, 1788; the second part was written by “AN OLD WHIG,” and is taken from The New-York Journal of November 27, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 50

   ON CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONS (PART 2)
   Antifederalists sought a second constitutional convention immediately after conclusion of the first. This essay by “AN OLD WHIG,” is from either The Freeman's Journal or The North-American Intelligencer, of November 28, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 51

   DO CHECKS AND BALANCES REALLY SECURE THE RIGHTS OF THE PEOPLE?
   This satire is from a pamphlet of “ARISTOCROTIS,” The Government of Nature Delineated; Or An Exact Picture of the New Federal Constitution (Carlisle, PA, 1788)
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 52

   ON THE GUARANTEE OF CONGRESSIONAL BIENNIAL ELECTIONS
   The following essay was signed by Consider Arms, Malichi Maynard, and Samuel Field. It was taken from The Hampshire Gazette of April 9, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 53

   A PLEA FOR THE RIGHT OF RECALL
   “AMICUS” appeared in the Columbian Herald, August 28, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 54

   APPORTIONMENT AND SLAVERY: NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN VIEWS
   The first is taken from the third essay of “BRUTUS.” The second: from the speeches of Rawlins Lowndes to the South Carolina ratifying convention on January 16, 17, and 18, 1788. The third: from the sixth essay by “CATO.” The fourth: from an essay by “A GEORGIAN,” appearing in The Gazette of the State of Georgia on November 15, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 55

   WILL THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES BE GENUINELY REPRESENTATIVE? (PART 1)
   Following are four essays by “THE FEDERAL FARMER”.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 56

   WILL THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES BE GENUINELY REPRESENTATIVE? (PART 2)
   . . . Why in England have the revolutions always ended in stipulations in favor of general liberty, equal laws, and the common rights of the people, and in most other countries in favor only of a few influential men?
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 57

   WILL THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES BE GENUINELY REPRESENTATIVE? (PART 3)
   . . . But “the people must elect good men.” Examine the system -is it practicable for them to elect fit and proper representatives where the number is so small?
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 58

   WILL THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES BE GENUINELY REPRESENTATIVE? (PART 4)
   It is said that our people have a high sense of freedom, possess power, property, and the strong arm; meaning, I presume, that the body of the people can take care of themselves, and awe their rulers; and, therefore, particular provision in the constitution for their security may not be essential. When I come to examine these observations, they appear to me too trifling and loose to deserve a serious answer.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 59

   THE DANGER OF CONGRESSIONAL CONTROL OF ELECTIONS
   Alexander Hamilton, in Federalist #59, addresses this same topic from an opposing viewpoint. This essay was written anonymously by “VOX POPULI,” and appeared in The Massachusetts Gazette on October 30, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 60

   WILL THE CONSTITUTION PROMOTE THE INTERESTS OF FAVORITE CLASSES?
   John F. Mercer of Maryland was the author of this essay, taken from his testimony to members of the ratifying conventions of New York and Virginia, 1788, (From the Etting Collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.)
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 61

   QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS ON THE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS REGARDING THE ELECTION OF CONGRESSMEN
   . . . It is well observed by Montesquieu, that in republican governments the forms of elections are fundamental; and that it is an essential part of the social compact, to ascertain by whom, to whom, when, and in what manner, suffrages are to be given. Wherever we find the regulation of elections have not been carefully fixed by the constitution, or the principles of them, we constantly see new legislatures modifying . . . [their] own form, and changing the spirit of the government to answer partial purposes.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 62

   ON THE ORGANIZATION AND POWERS OF THE SENATE (PART 1)
   Taken from the 16th essay of “Brutus” from The New York Journal of April 10, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 63

   ON THE ORGANIZATION AND POWERS OF THE SENATE (PART 2)
   . . . The senate is an assembly of 26 members, two from each state; though the senators are apportioned on the federal plan, they will vote individually. They represent the states, as bodies politic, sovereign to certain purposes. The states being sovereign and independent, are all considered equal, each with the other in the senate. In this we are governed solely by the ideal equalities of sovereignties; the federal and state governments forming one whole, and the state governments an essential part, which ought always to be kept distinctly in view, and preserved. I feel more disposed, on reflection, to acquiesce in making them the basis of the senate, and thereby to make it the interest and duty of the senators to preserve distinct, and to perpetuate the respective, sovereignties they shall represent . . .
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 64

   ON THE ORGANIZATION AND POWERS OF THE SENATE (PART 3)
   Taken from the New York Journal, Nov. 22, 1787 by “CINCINNATUS” It appears to have been written in answer to James Wilson's Antifederalist # 12.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 65

   ON THE ORGANIZATION AND POWERS OF THE SENATE (PART 4)
   (by Gilbert Livingston and John Lansing delivered on June 24, 1788 to the New York ratifying convention)
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 66

   From North Carolina
   Mr. JOSEPH TAYLOR objected to the provision made for impeaching. He urged that there could be no security from it, as the persons accused were triable by the Senate, who were a part of the legislature themselves; that, while men were fallible, the senators were liable to errors, especially in a case where they were concerned themselves . . .
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 67

   VARIOUS FEARS CONCERNING THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
   From the “CATO” letters of George Clinton, taken from The New-York Journal of November 8, 1787.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 68

   ON THE MODE OF ELECTING THE PRESIDENT
   From a speech by William Grayson given to the Virginia ratifying convention on June 18, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 69

   THE CHARACTER OF THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE
   by Richard Henry Lee. The great object is, in a republican government, to guard effectually against perpetuating any portion of power, great or small, in the same man or family. This perpetuation of power is totally uncongenial to the true spirit of republican governments.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 70

   THE POWERS AND DANGEROUS POTENTIALS OF HIS ELECTED MAJESTY
   “AN OLD WHIG's” essay from The New-York Journal of December 11, 1787. . . . . In the first place the office of president of the United States appears to me to be clothed with such powers as are dangerous. To be the fountain of all honors in the United States-commander in chief of the army, navy, and militia; with the power of making treaties and of granting pardons; and to be vested with an authority to put a negative upon all laws, unless two thirds of both houses shall persist in enacting it, and put their names down upon calling the yeas and nays for that purpose -is in reality to be a king, as much a king as the king of Great Britain, and a king too of the worst kind: an elective king.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 71

   THE PRESIDENTIAL TERM OF OFFICE
   Part 1: Luther Martin, The Genuine Information. Part 2: An excerpt from the 18th letter of “AGRIPPA” appearing in The Massachusetts Gazette on February 5, 1788. Part 3: From by “A CUSTOMER” in the Maine Cumberland Gazette, March 13, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 72

   ON THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE; ON REELIGIBILITY OF THE PRESIDENT
   By an anonymous writer “REPUBLICUS,” appearing in The Kentucky Gazette on March 1, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 73

   DOES THE PRESIDENTIAL VETO POWER INFRINGE ON THE SEPARATION OF DEPARTMENTS?
   “WILLIAM PENN,” an anonymous writer appeared in the [Philadelphia] Independent Gazetteer on January 3, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 74

   THE PRESIDENT AS MILITARY KING
   “PHILADELPHIENSIS,” who was influenced by Thomas Paine (in Common Sense), wrote the following selection. It is taken from 3 essays which appearing February 6 & 20, and April 9 of 1788 in either The Freeman’s Journal or, The North-American Intelligencer.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 75

   A NOTE PROTESTING THE TREATY-MAKING PROVISIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION
   The following essay was penned anonymously by “HAMPDEN,” and it appeared in The Pittsburgh Gazette on February 16, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 76 - 77

   AN ANTIFEDERALIST VIEW OF THE APPOINTING POWER UNDER THE CONSTITUTION
   by Richard Henry Lee. In contemplating the necessary officers of the union, there appear to be six different modes in which, in whole or in part, the appointments may be made.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 78 - 79

   THE POWER OF THE JUDICIARY (PART 1)
   Part one is taken from the first part of the “Brutus's” 15th essay of The New-York Journal on March 20, 1788; Part two is part one of his 16th of the New York Journal of April 10, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 80

   THE POWER OF THE JUDICIARY (PART 2)
   From the 11th essay of “Brutus” taken from The New-York Journal, January 31, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 81

   THE POWER OF THE JUDICIARY (PART 3)
   Part 1: from the 12th essay by “Brutus” from the February 7th & 14th (1788) issues of The New-York Journal. Part 2: Taken from the first half of the 14th essay February 28, 1788.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 82

   THE POWER OF THE JUDICIARY (PART 4)
   Part 1: Part 2 of “Brutus'” 14th essay (from the March 6, 1788, New-York Journal) Part 2: The final segment of the 15th essay (March 20, 1788 New York Journal.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 83

   THE FEDERAL JUDICIARY AND THE ISSUE OF TRIAL BY JURY
   by Luther Martin of Maryland. . . . in all those cases, where the general government has jurisdiction in civil questions, the proposed Constitution not only makes no provision for the trial by jury in the first instance, but, by its appellate jurisdiction, absolutely takes away that inestimable privilege, since it expressly declares the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 84

   ON THE LACK OF A BILL OF RIGHTS
   By “BRUTUS”. When a building is to be erected which is intended to stand for ages, the foundation should be firmly laid. The Constitution proposed to your acceptance is designed, not for yourselves alone, but for generations yet unborn. The principles, therefore, upon which the social compact is founded, ought to have been clearly and precisely stated, and the most express and full declaration of rights to have been made. But on this subject there is almost an entire silence.
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AntiFederalist Paper No. 85

   CONCLUDING REMARKS: EVILS UNDER CONFEDERATION EXAGGERATED; CONSTITUTION MUST BE DRASTICALLY REVISED BEFORE ADOPTION.
   By Melancthon Smith (a “PLEBIAN”). . . . It is agreed, the plan is defective -that some of the powers granted are dangerous -others not well defined -and amendments are necessary why then not amend it? Why not remove the cause of danger, and, possible, even the apprehension of it? The instrument is yet in the hands of the people; it is not signed, sealed, and delivered, and they have power to give it any form they please. But it is contended, adopt it first, and then amend it. I ask, why not amend, and then adopt it?
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